Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths. vol.14

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Free Shipping Free global shipping No minimum order. Powered by. You are connected as. Connect with:. Use your name:. The resultant magma rises as a diapir, or diatreme, along pre-existing fractures, and can be emplaced deep in the crust , or erupted at the surface. REE enriched deposits forming from these melts are typically S-Type granitoids. Alkaline magmas enriched with rare-earth elements include carbonatites, peralkaline granites pegmatites , and nepheline syenite.

Carbonatites crystallize from CO 2 -rich fluids, which can be produced by partial melting of hydrous-carbonated lherzolite to produce a CO 2 -rich primary magma, by fractional crystallization of an alkaline primary magma, or by separation of a CO 2 -rich immiscible liquid from. They contain high concentrations of rare-earth-bearing accessory minerals. Rare-earth elements can also be enriched in deposits by secondary alteration either by interactions with hydrothermal fluids or meteoric water or by erosion and transport of resistate REE-bearing minerals. Argillization of primary minerals enriches insoluble elements by leaching out silica and other soluble elements, recrystallizing feldspar into clay minerals such kaolinite, halloysite and montmorillonite.

In tropical regions where precipitation is high, weathering forms a thick argillized regolith, this process is called supergene enrichment and produces laterite deposits; heavy rare-earth elements are incorporated into the residual clay by absorption. This kind of deposit is only mined for REE in Southern China, where the majority of global heavy rare-earth element production occurs.

REE may also by extracted from placer deposits if the sedimentary parent lithology contained REE-bearing, heavy resistate minerals. In , Yasuhiro Kato, a geologist at the University of Tokyo who led a study of Pacific Ocean seabed mud, published results indicating the mud could hold rich concentrations of rare-earth minerals.

The deposits, studied at 78 sites, came from "[h]ot plumes from hydrothermal vents pull[ing] these materials out of seawater and deposit[ing] them on the seafloor, bit by bit, over tens of millions of years.

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One square patch of metal-rich mud 2. Some deposits contained twice as much heavy rare earths such as dysprosium, a component of magnets in hybrid car motors. The application of rare-earth elements to geology is important to understanding the petrological processes of igneous , sedimentary and metamorphic rock formation. In geochemistry , rare-earth elements can be used to infer the petrological mechanisms that have affected a rock due to the subtle atomic size differences between the elements, which causes preferential fractionation of some rare earths relative to others depending on the processes at work.

In geochemistry, rare-earth elements are typically presented in normalized "spider" diagrams, in which concentration of rare-earth elements are normalized to a reference standard and are then expressed as the logarithm to the base 10 of the value. Commonly, the rare-earth elements are normalized to chondritic meteorites , as these are believed to be the closest representation of unfractionated solar system material.

However, other normalizing standards can be applied depending on the purpose of the study. Normalization to a standard reference value, especially of a material believed to be unfractionated, allows the observed abundances to be compared to initial abundances of the element. The trends that are observed in "spider" diagrams are typically referred to as "patterns", which may be diagnostic of petrological processes that have affected the material of interest.

The rare-earth elements patterns observed in igneous rocks are primarily a function of the chemistry of the source where the rock came from, as well as the fractionation history the rock has undergone. These concepts are also applicable to metamorphic and sedimentary petrology. In igneous rocks, particularly in felsic melts, the following observations apply: anomalies in europium are dominated by the crystallization of feldspars. The presence of zircon may also cause a similar effect.

In sedimentary rocks, rare-earth elements in clastic sediments are a representation provenance. The rare-earth element concentrations are not typically affected by sea and river waters, as rare-earth elements are insoluble and thus have very low concentrations in these fluids. As a result, when a sediment is transported, rare-earth element concentrations are unaffected by the fluid and instead the rock retains the rare-earth element concentration from its source. Sea and river waters typically have low rare-earth element concentrations.

Acknowledgements

However, aqueous geochemistry is still very important. In oceans, rare-earth elements reflect input from rivers, hydrothermal vents , and aeolian sources; [20] this is important in the investigation of ocean mixing and circulation. Rare-earth elements are also useful for dating rocks, as some radioactive isotopes display long half-lives. Until , most of the world's rare earths were sourced from placer sand deposits in India and Brazil.

Through the s, South Africa was the world's rare-earth source, from a monazite-rich reef at the Steenkampskraal mine in Western Cape province.


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Today, the Indian and South African deposits still produce some rare-earth concentrates, but they are dwarfed by the scale of Chinese production. Increased demand has strained supply, and there is growing concern that the world may soon face a shortage of the rare earths. Furthermore, due to the increased demand and low supply, future prices are expected to increase and there is a chance that countries other than China will open REE mines. These new products that need REEs to be produced are high technology equipment such as smart phones, digital cameras, computer parts, etc.

In addition, these elements are more prevalent in the following industries: renewable energy technology, military equipment, glass making, and metallurgy. These concerns have intensified due to the actions of China, the predominant supplier. China responded with claims that the restrictions had environmental protection in mind. In response to the opening of new mines in other countries Lynas in Australia and Molycorp in the United States , prices of rare earths dropped.

On August 29, , the WTO ruled that China had broken free-trade agreements, and the WTO said in the summary of key findings that "the overall effect of the foreign and domestic restrictions is to encourage domestic extraction and secure preferential use of those materials by Chinese manufacturers. By January 5, , China had lifted all quotas from the export of rare earths, however export licences will still be required.

As a result of the increased demand and tightening restrictions on exports of the metals from China, some countries are stockpiling rare-earth resources. Also under consideration for mining are sites such as Thor Lake in the Northwest Territories , and various locations in Vietnam.

Rare-earth element - Wikipedia

However, this project has been suspended by regional authorities due to social and environmental concerns. Adding to potential mine sites, ASX listed Peak Resources announced in February , that their Tanzanian-based Ngualla project contained not only the 6th largest deposit by tonnage outside of China, but also the highest grade of rare-earth elements of the 6. The ore would be trucked to Fremantle and transported by container ship to Kuantan.

Within two years, Lynas was said to expect the refinery to be able to meet nearly a third of the world's demand for rare-earth materials, not counting China. However, the Malaysian authorities confirmed that as of October , Lynas was not given any permit to import any rare-earth ore into Malaysia. On April 3, , Lynas announced to the Malaysian media that these conditions had been met, and was now waiting on the issuance of the licence.

In May , researchers from two universities in Japan announced that they had discovered rare earths in Ehime Prefecture , Japan. A potential deposit might compare in grade with the ion-absorption-type deposits in southern China that provide the bulk of Chinese REO mine production, which grade in the range of 0. Another recently developed source of rare earths is electronic waste and other wastes that have significant rare-earth components. Global REE consumption, [91]. US consumption of REE, [92]. The uses, applications, and demand for rare-earth elements has expanded over the years.

Globally, most REEs are used for catalysts and magnets. Other important uses of rare-earth elements are applicable to the production of high-performance magnets, alloys, glasses, and electronics. Ce and La are important as catalysts, and are used for petroleum refining and as diesel additives. Nd is important in magnet production in traditional and low-carbon technologies.

Rare-earth elements in this category are used in the electric motors of hybrid and electric vehicles , generators in wind turbines , hard disc drives, portable electronics, microphones, speakers. Ce, La and Nd are important in alloy making, and in the production of fuel cells and Nickel-metal hydride batteries.

Ce, Ga and Nd are important in electronics and are used in the production of LCD and plasma screens, fiber optics, lasers, [93] as well as in medical imaging. Additional uses for rare-earth elements are as tracers in medical applications, fertilizers, and in water treatment. REEs have been used in agriculture to increase plant growth, productivity, and stress resistance seemingly without negative effects for human and animal consumption. However, this practice has resulted in REE bio-accumulation within livestock and has impacted vegetation and algae growth in these agricultural areas.

REEs are naturally found in very low concentration in the environment. Near mining and industrial sites the concentrations can rise to many times the normal background levels. Once in the environment REEs can leach into the soil where their transport is determined by numerous factors such as erosion, weathering, pH, precipitation, ground water, etc. Acting much like metals they can speciate depending on the soil condition being either motile or adsorbed to soil particles.

Depending on their bio-availability REEs can be absorbed into plants and later consumed by humans and animals. Including the mining of REEs and REE-enriched fertilizers, the production of phosphorus fertilizers also contribute to REE contamination due to their production and deposition around the phosphorus fertilizer production plants. Another additive of REE mining that contributes to REE environmental contamination is cerium oxide CeO 2 which is produced during the combustion of diesel and is released as an exhaust particulate matter and contributes heavily to soil and water contamination.

Mining, refining, and recycling of rare earths have serious environmental consequences if not properly managed.

Australia’s Rare Earths Opportunity

A potential hazard could be low-level radioactive tailings resulting from the occurrence of thorium and uranium in rare-earth element ores. In May , China announced a major, five-month crackdown on illegal mining in order to protect the environment and its resources. After having accomplished the hilltop entombment of 11, truckloads of radioactively contaminated material, the project is expected to entail in summer, , the removal of "more than 80, steel barrels of radioactive waste to the hilltop repository.

In May , after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster , widespread protests took place in Kuantan over the Lynas refinery and radioactive waste from it. The ore to be processed has very low levels of thorium, and Lynas founder and chief executive Nicholas Curtis said "There is absolutely no risk to public health. Jayabalan, a doctor who says he has been monitoring and treating patients affected by the Mitsubishi plant, "is wary of Lynas's assurances. The argument that low levels of thorium in the ore make it safer doesn't make sense, he says, because radiation exposure is cumulative.

References

IAEA panel investigation is completed and no construction has been halted. Lynas is on budget and on schedule to start producing The IAEA report has concluded in a report issued on Thursday June said it did not find any instance of "any non-compliance with international radiation safety standards" in the project.

If the proper safety standards are followed, REE mining is relatively low impact. Molycorp before going bankrupt often exceeded environmental regulations to improve public image. Literature published in suggests that along with previously established pollution mitigation, a more circular supply chain would help mitigate some of the pollution that the extraction point. This means recycling and reusing REEs that are already in use or reaching the end of their life cycle.

The mining of REEs have caused the contamination of surrounding soil and water of these production areas, which has impacted vegetation in these area by decreasing chlorophyll production which affects photosynthesis and inhibits the growth of the plants. Also, the main two plants that have a higher chance of absorbing and storing REEs are apples and beets. An example of this situation was the case of the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes in China, where the water was contaminated due to a REE-enriched fertilizer being used in an agricultural area of close proximity.

This led to the nearby aquatic environment becoming contaminated with Cerium and resulted in the water hyacinth becoming three times more concentrated in Cerium than its surrounding water. REEs are a large group with many different properties and levels in the environment, because of this, and limited research, it has been difficult to determine safe levels of exposure for humans. Exposure to these can lead to a wide range of negative health outcomes such as cancer, respiratory issues , dental loss including death.

Therefore, the main issues that these residents would face is bioaccumulation of REEs and the impact on their respiratory system but overall, there can be other possible short term and long term health effects. This higher level was related to the high levels of REEs present in the vegetables they cultivated, the soil, and the water from the wells indicating that the high levels were caused by the nearby mine. Hence, it can impact their IQ and can cause memory loss. Seven of the leukemia victims died. Osamu Shimizu, a director of Asian Rare Earth, said "the company might have sold a few bags of calcium phosphate fertilizer on a trial basis as it sought to market byproducts; calcium phosphate is not radioactive or dangerous" in reply to a former resident of Bukit Merah who said that "The cows that ate the grass [grown with the fertilizer] all died.

Experiments exposing rats to various cerium compounds have found accumulation primarily in the lungs and liver. This resulted in various negative health outcomes associated with those organs. While small doses in the environment and properly administered seem to have no ill effects. Larger doses have been shown to have negative effects specifically in the organs where they accumulate. Furthermore, in some cases animals that live in the REE contaminated areas have been diagnosed with organ or system problems. China has officially cited resource depletion and environmental concerns as the reasons for a nationwide crackdown on its rare-earth mineral production sector.

In the words of Deng Xiaoping, a Chinese politician from the late s to the late s, "The Middle East has oil; we have rare earths One possible example of market control is the division of General Motors that deals with miniaturized magnet research, which shut down its US office and moved its entire staff to China in [] China's export quota only applies to the metal but not products made from these metals such as magnets.

It was reported, [] but officially denied, [] that China instituted an export ban on shipments of rare-earth oxides but not alloys to Japan on 22 September , in response to the detainment of a Chinese fishing boat captain by the Japanese Coast Guard. The United States Department of Energy in its Critical Materials Strategy report identified dysprosium as the element that was most critical in terms of import reliance.

A report "China's Rare-Earth Industry", issued by the US Geological Survey and US Department of the Interior, outlines industry trends within China and examines national policies that may guide the future of the country's production.

Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Volume 32

The report notes that China's lead in the production of rare-earth minerals has accelerated over the past two decades. In , world production was , metric tons; China produced , of those tons. According to the report, recent patterns suggest that China will slow the export of such materials to the world: "Owing to the increase in domestic demand, the Government has gradually reduced the export quota during the past several years.

Controls have since tightened annually; by , only 22 domestic rare-earth producers and traders and 9 Sino-foreign rare-earth producers were authorized. The government's future policies will likely keep in place strict controls: "According to China's draft rare-earth development plan, annual rare-earth production may be limited to between , and , [metric tons] during the period from to The export quota for rare-earth products may be about 35, [metric tons] and the Government may allow 20 domestic rare-earth producers and traders to export rare earths.

The United States Geological Survey is actively surveying southern Afghanistan for rare-earth deposits under the protection of United States military forces. Since the USGS has conducted remote sensing surveys as well as fieldwork to verify Soviet claims that volcanic rocks containing rare-earth metals exist in Helmand province near the village of Khanneshin. The USGS study team has located a sizable area of rocks in the center of an extinct volcano containing light rare-earth elements including cerium and neodymium. It has mapped 1. It has been argued that the geopolitical importance of rare earths has been exaggerated in the literature on the geopolitics of renewable energy, underestimating the power of economic incentives for expanded production.

Due to its role in permanent magnets used for wind turbines, it has been argued that neodymium will be one of the main objects of geopolitical competition in a world running on renewable energy. But this perspective has been criticised for and failing to recognise that most wind turbines have gears and do not use permanent magnets. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Any of the fifteen lanthanides plus scandium and yttrium. Rare-earth elements in the periodic table. These rare-earth oxides are used as tracers to determine which parts of a drainage basin are eroding. See also: Rare Earths Trade Dispute.

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. May Geology portal. US Department of Agriculture. Retrieved Connelly and T. Damhus, ed. With R. Hartshorn and A. Cambridge: RSC Publishing. Archived from the original PDF on The Elements. Edited by Peter H. Stauffer and James W. Haxel, Sara Boore, and Susan Mayfield. United States Geological Survey. However, in contrast to ordinary base and precious metals , REE have very little tendency to become concentrated in exploitable ore deposits.

Consequently, most of the world's supply of REE comes from only a handful of sources. Long; Bradley S. Van Gosen; Nora K. Foley; Daniel Cordier. In David R. Lide ed. Internet Version 89th ed. Think GlobalGreen. Archived from the original on Retrieved 10 February Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Contributor: Matthias Bohnet 6th ed. IS-RIC Dhesi The Structure of Rare-earth Metal Surfaces. World Scientific. Hydrometallurgy of Rare Earths. Smith Hopkins: "Chemistry of the rarer elements", D. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. Berlin; London: Springer. Upper Saddle River, N.

Geological Society of London. Retrieved 18 May Belli; R. Bernabei; F. Cappella; R.


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