Pages: 87— By: Armand L. Pages: — By: James C. By: Joseph B. By: E. Burke Rochford Jr. By: John H. Biographical Note Anthony J. Blasi , Ph. Recent books include Diverse Histories of American Sociology ed. Research libraries, sociologists of religion, intellectual historians, scholars in American religions.
Terms and Conditions Privacy Statement. Powered by: PubFactory. Sign in to annotate. Delete Cancel Save. Cancel Save. As we saw at the beginning of the chapter, the third wave of immigration following the change of the race-based immigration policy saw increasingly larger proportions of immigrants from non-European countries. Most immigrants are eventually absorbed into Canadian culture, although sometimes after facing extended periods of prejudice and discrimination.
However, for the rest of the year, other aspects of their originating culture may be forgotten. Cultural differences are erased. Sociologists measure the degree to which immigrants have assimilated to a new culture with four benchmarks: socioeconomic status, spatial concentration, language assimilation, and intermarriage.
When faced with racial and ethnic discrimination, it can be difficult for new immigrants to fully assimilate. Language assimilation, in particular, can be a formidable barrier, limiting employment and educational options and therefore constraining growth in socioeconomic status. It is represented in Canada by the metaphor of the mosaic, which suggests that in a multicultural society, each ethnic or racial group preserves its unique cultural traits while together contributing to national unity.
Each culture is equally important within the mosaic. There is a great mixture of different cultures where each culture retains its own identity and yet adds to the colour of the whole. The ideal of multiculturalism is characterized by mutual respect on the part of all cultures, both dominant and subordinate, creating a polyethnic environment of mutual tolerance and acceptance. As a strategy for managing diversity, Canada was the first country to adopt an official multicultural policy.
In , Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau implemented both a policy of official bilingualism both French and English would be the languages of the state and a policy of multiculturalism. The multicultural policy was designed to assist the different cultural groups in Canada to preserve their heritage, overcome cultural barriers to participation in Canadian society, and exchange with other cultural groups in order to contribute to national unity Ujimoto However, as a result of this policy initiative, multiculturalism was enshrined in the Canadian Constitution in and in the Multiculturalism Act of as a fundamental principle of Canadian society.
Whereas constitutional democracies like Canada are typically based on the protection of individual rights, multiculturalism implies that the protection of cultural difference also depends on protecting group-specific rights or group-differentiated rights i. While multicultural policy in Canada has generally been implemented on the basis of polyethnic rights, self-government rights have been a key part of First Nations claims and special representation rights have also occasionally been proposed, as was the case during the Charlottetown Accord debate in Although it seems trivial today, in many felt that the right of Sikhs to maintain their religious practice undermined a core and inviolable tradition of both the police force and Canada.
As such the case served as an emblem of a deeper fear about multiculturalism, namely that it would foster a dangerous fragmentation of an already fragile Canadian unity. While the positive outcome of multicultural policy is that the Canadian population remains remarkably accepting of diversity—the most accepting of all OECD countries in according to the Gallup World Poll Conference Board of Canada —issues around multiculturalism continually bring up the problem of ethical relativism , the idea that all cultures and all cultural practices have equal value.
In a fully multicultural society, what principles can be appealed to in order to resolve issues where different cultural beliefs or practices clash? Richard Day has argued that rather than resolving the problem of diversity, official multiculturalism has exacerbated it. Hybridity is the process by which different racial and ethnic groups combine to create new or emergent cultural forms of life. Rather than a multicultural mosaic, where each culture preserves its unique traditions, or a melting pot, where cultures assimilate into the majority group, the hybrid combination of cultures results in a new culture entirely.
As we noted above, intermarriage between people of different races or cultures creates new hybrid identities. More recently, Canadian culture has been home to numerous emergent cultural forms, some superficial and some profound, due to the intermingling of people from diverse backgrounds. From fusion cuisine, to martial arts and yoga, to hip hop and reggae, to alternative spiritual and healing practices, hybridity seems to capture some of the fluidity of contemporary Canadian culture.
While the first wave of immigrants came from western Europe, eventually the bulk of people entering North America were from northern Europe, then eastern Europe, then Latin America and Asia. And let us not forget the forced immigration of African slaves. Most of these groups underwent a period of disenfranchisement in which they were relegated to the bottom of the social hierarchy before they managed those who could to achieve social mobility. Today, our society is multicultural, although the extent to which this multiculturality is embraced varies, and the many manifestations of multiculturalism carry significant political repercussions.
The only non-immigrant ethnic group in Canada, aboriginal Canadians were once a large population, but by they made up only 4. The sports world abounds with team names like the Indians, the Warriors, the Braves, and even the Savages and Redskins. These names arise from historically prejudiced views of aboriginal people as fierce, brave, and strong savages: attributes that would be beneficial to a sports team, but are not necessarily beneficial to North Americans who should be seen as more than just fierce savages.
The campaign has met with only limited success. While some teams have changed their names, hundreds of professional, college, and K—12 school teams still have names derived from this stereotype. Another group, American Indian Cultural Support AICS , is especially concerned with such names at K—12 schools, grades where children should be gaining a fuller and more realistic understanding of aboriginal people than such stereotypes supply AICS What do you think about such names?
Should they be allowed or banned? What argument would a symbolic interactionist make on this topic?
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The earliest immigrants to Canada arrived millennia before European immigrants. Dates of the migration are debated with estimates ranging from between 45, and 12, BCE. It is thought that early Indians migrated to this new land in search of big game to hunt, which they found in huge herds of grazing herbivores in the Americas.
Over the centuries and then the millennia, aboriginal culture blossomed into an intricate web of hundreds of interconnected groups, each with its own customs, traditions, languages, and religions. Aboriginal culture prior to European settlement is referred to as pre-Columbian: that is, prior to the coming of Christopher Columbus in The history of intergroup relations between European colonists and aboriginal peoples is a brutal one that most Canadians are familiar with.
As discussed in the section on genocide, the effect of European settlement was to nearly destroy the aboriginal population. In the first stage, the relationship was largely mutually beneficial and profitable as the Europeans relied on aboriginal groups for knowledge, food, and supplies, whereas the aboriginals traded for European technologies. In the second stage, however, aboriginal people were increasingly drawn into the European-centred economy, coming to rely on fur trading for their livelihood rather than their own indigenous economic activity. This resulted in diminishing autonomy and increasing subjugation economically, militarily, politically, and religiously.
In the third stage, the reserve system was established, clearing the way for full-scale European colonization, resource exploitation, agriculture, and settlement. If aboriginal people tried to retain their stewardship of the land, Europeans fought them off with superior weapons. A key element of this issue is the aboriginal view of land and land ownership. Most First Nations considered the Earth a living entity whose resources they were stewards of; the concepts of land ownership and conquest did not exist in aboriginal society.
The last stage of the relationship developed after World War II, when aboriginal Canadians began to mobilize politically to challenge the conditions of oppression and forced assimilation they had been subjected to. A key turning point in aboriginal-European relations was the Royal Proclamation of which established British rule over the former French colonies, but also established that lands would be set aside for First Nations people.
It legally established that First Nations had sovereign rights to their territory. Although these were often disputed, challenged, or ignored by the arriving waves of colonists and land speculators, as well as subsequent government administrations, they became the basis of contemporary treaty rights and negotiations. The Indian Act of was another turning point. In effect, discrimination against aboriginal Canadians was institutionalized in a series of provisions intended to subjugate them and keep them from gaining any power.
The belief was that a separate act to govern Indians would no longer be necessary once they had integrated into society. Nevertheless the Indian Act became the most pervasive mechanism in aboriginal life, regulating and controlling everything from who could be defined as an Indian, to the reserve and band council system, to the types of aboriginal activities that would no longer be permitted potlatch and ceremonial dancing. Aboriginal Canadian culture was further eroded by the establishment of residential schools in the late 19th century, as we saw earlier.
The residential schools were located off-reserve to ensure that children were separated from their families and culture. Schools forced children to cut their hair, speak English, and practise Christianity. Education in the schools was substandard, and physical and sexual abuses were rampant for decades; only in did the last of the residential schools close. Prime Minister Stephen Harper delivered an apology on behalf of the Canadian government in Many of the problems that indigenous Canadians face today result from almost a century of traumatizing mistreatment at these residential schools.
First Nations people would be treated just like everyone else, as if the sovereign treaties and centuries of oppression had not occurred.
However, First Nations people still suffer the effects of centuries of degradation. As noted above, the income of aboriginal people in Canada is far lower than that of non-aboriginal people and rates of child poverty are much greater. Even though the last residential school closed in , the problem of aboriginal education remains grave with 40 percent of all aboriginal people failing to complete high school.
Long-term poverty, inadequate education, cultural dislocation, and high rates of unemployment contribute to aboriginal Canadian populations falling to the bottom of the economic spectrum. Aboriginal Canadians also suffer disproportionately with lower life expectancies than most groups in Canada.
Modern Canada was founded on the displacement of the aboriginal population by two colonizing nations: the French and the British. The Constitution Act of protected the linguistic, religious, and educational of the French and English in Quebec and Ontario, as well as the rest of the country. Lawrence River in Most of the settlers could trace their origins to the northwest of France, particularly present-day Normandy. The economy of New France was based on agriculture and the fur trade, but with the arrival of the British and especially the British Loyalists escaping the American Revolution in , a pattern of British economic and financial domination emerged.
The establishment of British rule in Canada was accomplished by conquest; that is, the forcible subjugation of territory and people by military action. As we noted earlier, after attempts at assimilating the French population, the conquest of Port Royal and Acadia led eventually to the Great Expulsion of , in which a large portion of the Acadian French population was deported from Nova Scotia.
However, from the time of the Treaty of Paris onward, the British recognized the need to accommodate the French in Canada to avoid the problem of pacifying a large and hostile population. The Quebec Act of granted religious and linguistic rights to the French, and the Constitution Act of divided the province of Canada into Upper and Lower Canada, each with the power of self-government. The division of Canada into two founding charter groups—French and English—was further established by Confederation.
The Constitution Act of protected the religious, educational, and linguistic rights of the French and English in Canada. Despite the notion of equality behind the two founding nations theme of Canadian Confederation, English-speaking Canadians in Montreal held the positions of power in the economy. English was the language of commerce in Quebec. In the process of modernizing the state to address the new conditions of industrialization, urbanization, and continental capitalism, the Quebec independence movement emerged alongside an increasingly militant labour movement.
To address the emerging crisis of Canadian unity, the federal government appointed the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism in The report of the commission emphasized ways in which the equality of the two founding peoples could be recognized and led to the Official Languages Act of The Act recognized French and English as the two official languages in Canada and mandated that federal government services and the judicial system would be conducted in both languages.
However, when a small terrorist group—the FLQ or Front for the Liberation of Quebec—kidnapped a provincial government minister and a British diplomat in , the response of the federal government was to implement the War Measures Act, suspending the rights of Canadians from coast to coast and arresting and detaining hundreds of individuals without legal due process. The notion of equal partnership between French and English Canada was proven to be questionable at best. It failed to get sufficient votes to separate in the provincial referendum on sovereignty in , but the move to repatriate the constitution from Great Britain without the consent of Quebec in fuelled nationalist sentiment.
Subsequent attempts to include Quebec as a voluntary signatory to the constitution failed in the Meech Lake Accord and the Charlottetown Accord. Many people in Quebec regarded these failures as rejection of Quebec by the English majority in other parts of the country. In a second referendum on Quebec sovereignty was a narrowly defeated by a vote of The history of intergroup relations between the French and English in Canada on the model of equal partnership has therefore proven to be a tenuous experiment in dual nationhood.
Income data from indicated that the income disparity between French and English Canadians both within and outside the province of Quebec had more or less disappeared, suggesting that the issues of intergroup relations had shifted to political, linguistic, and cultural alienation in Canada Li It defines French as the official language of Quebec, limits the use of English in commercial signs, and restricts who may enroll in English schools. Although it remains controversial, it appears to have been somewhat effective in preserving the French language. Linguistically, there were 7 million people who reported speaking French most often at home in compared to 6.
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In Quebec, This decline was paralleled by the decline in the proportion of the population who spoke only English at home in the rest of Canada from On the other hand, the number of people reporting that they were able to conduct conversation in both French and English increased by , to 5. Bilingualism was reported by Many people with dark skin in Canada have roots in the Caribbean rather than being descendants of the African slaves from the United States. They see themselves ethnically as Caribbean Canadians. The commonality of black Canadians is more a function of racism rather than origin.
It is reported that at least 6 of the 16 legislators in English Upper Canada also owned slaves Mosher The economic conditions in Canada were not conducive to slavery so the practice was not widespread. Nevertheless it was not until that slavery was banned throughout the British Empire, including Canada. Between the American Revolution in and the end of the American Civil War in , Canada received approximately 60, runaway slaves and black Empire Loyalists from the United States.
It is estimated that 10 percent of the Empire Loyalists who came to Canada following the American Revolution were black Walker Many black Canadians returned to the United States after the Civil War, and by there were only about 17, left in Canada Mosher After the change in immigration policy in the late s, blacks from the Caribbean and elsewhere began to immigrate to Canada in increasing numbers.
Prior to , Canadians of black origin made up less than 1 percent of the population Li In the census, they made up 2. Many Caribbean people come to Canada as part of the Canadian Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program or as domestic workers with temporary work permits, although the permanent Caribbean community in Canada has more or less the same higher education attainments and full-time employment rates as the rest of the population. Between and , more than 55, Somali refugees arrived in Canada, representing the largest black immigrant group ever to come to Canada in such a short time Abdulle Although slavery became in illegal in Canada in , blacks did not effectively enjoy equal rights in Canada.
Blacks could vote and sit on juries, but these rights were frequently challenged by white citizens. As noted above, Ontario outside of Toronto and Nova Scotia enacted laws to segregate schools along racial lines that remained in effect until in Ontario and in Nova Scotia Black History Canada Blacks were also segregated into residential neighbourhoods in Toronto, Hamilton, and Windsor Mosher In Halifax, the community of Africville was set aside for blacks as early as , although most accounts place its establishment to the arrival of black Loyalists after the War of It was considered a slum by city councillors and was bulldozed between and without meaningful consultation with its residents.
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Blacks were also restricted by the type of occupations they could pursue. For example, the father of Oscar Peterson, the famous jazz pianist, was a Canadian Pacific railroad porter in Montreal, while his mother was employed as a domestic Library and Archives Canada The story of a large group of black immigrants who arrived in Victoria, British Columbia, from San Francisco in the s, illustrates some of the ambiguities of the early black experience in Canada.
The blacks were initially welcomed to the British colony by Governor Douglas, who assured them they would have full civic rights. Douglas and others were worried that the immigration of white Americans to Vancouver Island might lead to annexation by the United States and the arrival of several hundred black immigrants would help to prevent that eventuality.
There was also need for an industrious and reliable workforce and by the black immigrants were fully employed. The de facto leader of the black immigrant group, Mifflin Gibbs, was a successful shopkeeper and prominent member of the community. He won a seat on city council in the wealthiest ward of the city, James Bay, and acted as temporary mayor for a time. On the other hand, tensions and discrimination began to develop between the black and white communities. Schools were integrated and only one church was segregated. However a dispute over black voting led to a racist campaign by future premier Amor de Cosmos.
The blacks began to be denied access to some saloons and desired seating in theatres. As influential as Gibbs was, he was denied tickets to the retirement banquet of Governor Douglas, who had originally been a great supporter of the black immigrants. By the time Gibbs returned to the United States in , the end of slavery after the American Civil War had already led to many of the black community leaving Victoria. Although formalized discrimination against black Canadians has been outlawed, in many respects true equality does not yet exist.
The census shows that black Canadians earned In addition blacks are subject to greater degrees of racial profiling than other groups. Racial profiling refers to the practice of selecting specific racial groups for greater levels of criminal justice surveillance.
Like many groups this section discusses, Asian Canadians represent a great diversity of cultures and backgrounds. The national and ethnic diversity of Asian Canadian immigration history is reflected in the variety of their experiences in joining Canadian society. Asian immigrants have come to Canada in waves, at different times, and for different reasons.
The experience of a Japanese Canadian whose family has been in Canada for five generations will be drastically different from a Laotian Canadian who has only been in Canada for a few years. This section primarily discusses the experience of Chinese, Japanese, and South Asian immigrants. The first Asian immigrants to come to Canada in the midth century were Chinese. These immigrants were primarily men whose intention was to work for several years in order to earn incomes to support their families in China.
Their first destination was the Fraser Canyon for the gold rush in Many of these Chinese came north from California. The second major wave of Chinese immigration arrived for the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway when contractors recruited thousands of workers from Taiwan and Guandong Province in China. Chinese labourers were paid approximately a third of what white, black, and aboriginal workers were paid.
Race and Ethnicity in the U.S.
Even so, they were used to complete the most difficult sections of track through the rugged Fraser Valley Canyon, living under squalid and dangerous conditions; Chinese workers died during the construction of the rail line. Chinese men also engaged in other manual labour like mining, laundry, cooking, canning, and agricultural work.
The work was gruelling and underpaid, but like many immigrants, they persevered Chan Japanese immigration began in with the arrival of the first Japanese settler, Manzo Nagano. The Issei , or first wave of Japanese immigrants were, like the first Chinese immigrants, mostly men. They came from fishing and farming backgrounds in the southern Japanese islands of Kyushu and Honshu. Like the Chinese settlers, they were paid much less than workers from European backgrounds and were usually hired for menial labour or heavy agricultural work.
With restrictions imposed on the immigration of Japanese men after , most of the early Japanese immigrants after were women, either the wives of Japanese immigrants or women betrothed to be married Sunahara and Oikawa South Asians refer to a diverse group of people with different ethnic backgrounds in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. The first group of Sikhs arrived in Vancouver in from Hong Kong, attracted by stories of high wages from British Indian troops who had travelled through Canada the previous year Buchignani They were encouraged by Hong Kong—based agents of the Canadian Pacific Railway who had seen travel on their passenger liners plummet with the head tax imposed on Chinese immigration.
They were originally from rural areas of Punjab and mortgaged their properties for passage with the prospect of sending money home. Many arrived in Canada unable to speak English but eventually found employment in mills, factories, the railway, and Okanagan orchards Johnston Many of them settled in Abbotsford Buchignani The right to vote federally and provincially was denied to Chinese Canadians in , Japanese Canadians in , and South Asians in This disenfranchisement also prevented these groups from having access to political office, jury duty, the professions like law, civil service jobs, underground mining jobs, and labour on public works because these all required being on provincial voters lists.
Voting rights were only returned to Chinese and South Asian Canadians in and to Japanese Canadians in , whereas immigration restrictions were not removed until the s. As the Chinese workers were typically paid much lower wages than workers of European origin, various Asian exclusion leagues developed to press for further restrictions on Asian immigration. This led to riots in Vancouver in and eventually in to a complete ban on Chinese immigration. For similar reasons, the immigration of Japanese men was restricted to a year after , and further reduced to individuals a year after Their success in the fishing industry led the federal fisheries department to arbitrarily reduce Japanese trolling licences by one-third in When the Japanese, many veterans of the Russo-Japanese war of , successfully defended their community against white supremacist mobs in the anti-Asian riots in Vancouver, they were accused of smuggling a secret army into Canada Sunahara and Oikawa An even uglier action was the establishment of Japanese internment camps of World War II, discussed earlier as an illustration of expulsion.
Of the three groups, South Asians were the most recent to arrive. However, by the large number of arrivals led to the imposition of immigration restrictions. As the South Asians were British subjects, the restrictions took a more devious form, however. The famous incident of the freighter Komagata Maru in was a direct consequence of this restriction.
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The ship, carrying South Asian immigrants, many of whom had boarded in Hong Kong, was prevented from docking and kept in isolation in Vancouver harbour for two months until forced to return to Asia. Only 20 of the passengers were allowed to stay in Canada Johnston Asian Canadians certainly have been subject to their share of racial prejudice, despite their seemingly positive stereotype today as the model minority. The model minority stereotype is applied to a minority group that is seen as reaching significant educational, professional, and socioeconomic levels without challenging the existing establishment.
In the census, those identifying as Japanese earned percent of the income of white Canadians, Chinese This stereotype is typically applied to Asian groups in Canada, and it can result in unrealistic expectations, putting a stigma on members of this group that do not meet the expectations. Stereotyping all Asians as smart, industrious, and capable can also lead to a lack of much-needed government assistance and to educational and professional discrimination.
Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups Race is fundamentally a social construct. Ethnicity is a term that describes shared culture and national origin. Minority groups are defined by their lack of power. Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination Stereotypes are oversimplified ideas about groups of people.
Prejudice refers to thoughts and feelings, while discrimination refers to actions. Racism refers to the belief that one race is inherently superior or inferior to other races. Theories of Race and Ethnicity Functionalist views of race study the role dominant and subordinate groups play to create a stable social structure.
Critical sociologists examine power disparities and struggles between various racial and ethnic groups. Interactionists see race and ethnicity as important sources of individual identity and social symbolism. The concept of culture of prejudice recognizes that all people are subject to stereotypes that are ingrained in their culture.
Intergroup Relations and the Management of Diversity Intergroup relations range from a tolerant approach of pluralism to intolerance as severe as genocide. In pluralism, groups retain their own identity. In assimilation, groups conform to the identity of the dominant group. In assimilation, groups combine to form a new group identity. Race and Ethnicity in Canada The history of the Canadian people contains an infinite variety of experiences that sociologist understand follow patterns. From the aboriginal people who first inhabited these lands to the waves of immigrants over the past years, migration is an experience with many shared characteristics.
Most groups have experienced various degrees of prejudice and discrimination as they have gone through the process of assimilation. Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups 1. Which of the following is an example of a numerical majority being treated as a subordinate group?
Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination 6. Theories of Race and Ethnicity 9. Intergroup Relations and the Management of Diversity Which intergroup relation displays the least tolerance? Race and Ethnicity in Canada What makes aboriginal Canadians unique as a subordinate group in Canada? Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination How far should multicultural rights extend? Theories of Race and Ethnicity Do you know someone who practises white privilege? Do you practise it? Intergroup Relations and the Management of Diversity So you think you know your own assumptions?
Race and Ethnicity in Canada Are people interested in reclaiming their ethnic identities? Introduction CBC. March 8. Statistics Canada.
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